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Use the Coaching Tools and Resources in the Transferring the Lead section as you work directly with Reading First teachers prostate cancer uk discount proscar 5 mg visa. The A1 R1 symbol indicates that an activity relevant to mens health 90 second ab blaster buy generic proscar 5mg on line the adjacent text can be found at the end of that chapter prostate 80 grams discount 5mg proscar mastercard. The symbol indicates that a resource relevant to the adjacent text can be found at the end of that chapter. The purpose of Reading First is to ensure that all children in America learn to read well by the end of third grade so they are well prepared to achieve their full academic potential. Reading First involves the implementation of scientifically based reading instruction through strategic, systematic professional development. A strategic, systematic professional development plan: Prepares teachers, including special education teachers, in the five essential components of reading instruction. Facilitates the use of assessment data to inform instruction and meet the needs of all students, especially struggling readers. Coaching is a professional development delivery model that has been shown to improve instruction. In this model, professional development begins with reading-specific training that focuses on theory and instructional practice. Reading First coaches work collaboratively with teachers to set professional goals for developing, extending, and improving effective research-based instructional skills, strategies, and practices. Coaches are members of the Reading First leadership team who take an active role in improving classroom reading instruction and intervention by: Sharing their expertise through training and in-class support. Helping teachers and administrators use assessment data to inform instruction and professional development. The chart depicts the outcomes of different elements of professional development: theory, demonstration, practice, and coaching. An estimated ninety-five percent of teachers who receive ongoing support and guidance through coaching are more likely to learn and implement new practices in the classroom. Researchers also estimate that teachers generally need to use a new instructional strategy approximately 25 times before it is transferred into their daily teaching routine. In Reading First schools, coaches act as guides, mentors, supporters, facilitators, interpreters, analyzers, and organizers, among a host of additional roles. To function most effectively in these roles, coaches need a wide repertoire of professional and interpersonal skills. Effective coaches are reading teachers experienced in the five essential components of reading: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. Effective coaches also have experience conducting professional development and working with adults. They demonstrate and share their knowledge and practice of instructional planning and classroom management techniques. Effective coaches possess knowledge of and expertise in a variety of assessment instruments, commercial reading programs, and interventions. They "read widely, participate in learning communities, attend workshops and conferences, and model career-long learning by making their learning visible to others" (National Staff Development Council, 2001, p. Coaches who observe, collaborate, and provide reflective feedback in a respectful and supportive manner communicate and establish a positive environment for improving reading instruction. Coaches strive to develop relationships based on standards of professional ethics and responsibility. Effective coaches do not freely discuss or gossip about C h a p t e r 1 4 colleagues and students. When coaches are perceived as credible, competent, and trustworthy educators, teachers are more apt to seek their assistance and openly share their daily struggles and successes. They ensure that their attitudes and behaviors reflect the values and practices promoted in the state, district, and/or school Reading First plan. Effective coaches promote collaborative, team-building relationships with and among teachers: What do we need to do, who will do what, how will we do it, when will we make it happen, and how will we come to agreement?

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To ensure timely and appropriate administration of prophylactic antibiotics mens health issues discount proscar 5mg free shipping, a pediatric-specific list of appropriate antibiotics was developed mens health grooming awards 2011 buy 5 mg proscar amex. Pediatric dosing time frames prostate oncology 2020 generic 5 mg proscar free shipping, limits, and parameters for re-dosing were also established. A computerized forced-function was developed to attach required antibiotics to all procedures within the divisionspecific list of evidence-based need for antibiotic prophylaxis. A new file was added to the computer screen used by surgical schedulers to identify procedures for which antibiotics are required. This reminder was also printed on the operating room schedule for nurses, surgeons, and anesthesiologists to see. For same-day surgery patients, the complete preoperative antibiotic orders were due before 10:00 a. On the day of surgery, a medication nurse was required to confirm the antibiotic order and the accuracy of the dose, and to put an orange "antibiotic required" bracelet on the child as a reminder to the anesthesiologist. Daily data concerning potential failures at any step critical for success were collected, and team leaders discussed any failures the next day with the critical providers. Additionally, a bundle compliance-monitoring form, designed to be completed by nurses, helped to build quality improvement into daily work. The findings from the Initiative dramatically demonstrated the importance and impact of early intervention on clinical patient outcomes. Kaiser Permanente nursing, physician, informatics, and quality leaders translated existing guidelines into specific competencies, practices, and roles for the care delivery staff. The clinical teams became more proficient in inserting central lines and utilizing hemodynamic monitors for continual monitoring of central venous pressure, oxygenation, and mean arterial pressure through training and simulation. A prerequisite for this work is the use of a single-patient identifier to link care from multiple sites to a single patient. Step 1 in the registry development was the selection of high-impact and high-opportunity areas of focus: diabetes care, hypertension care, and cancer screening. Step 3 was the development of outreach tools for individual clinicians to manage patients between visits. Step 4 was the creation of performance report cards aggregated across patients and time and populated by nearly real-time data. By giving providers transparent access to metrics that identify variations in practice, utilization rates, and performance against internal and external benchmarks, Cleveland Clinic saw dramatic reductions in waste, improved quality, and a sustained change in culture, as practitioners take pride when they do well and foster the desire to change when they recognize the need to improve. Part of the systems-level change necessary requires identifying unnecessary services and engaging individual practitioners to be better stewards of limited resources. Summarized below are examples of recent analyses and inventories that have been developed to identify services that are often overused, unnecessary, or were otherwise wasteful. These are presented as "top 5" lists for primary care, internal medicine, and pediatrics. Appropriate use of screening and diagnostic tests to foster high-value, cost-conscious care. Screening for prostate cancer in men older than 75 years or with a life expectancy of less than 10 years 19. Performing preoperative chest radiography in the absence of a clinical suspicion for intrathoracic pathology 22. Ordering routine preoperative laboratory tests, including complete blood count, liver chemistry tests, and metabolic profiles, in otherwise healthy patients undergoing elective surgery 23. Performing preoperative coagulation studies in patients without risk factors or predisposing conditions for bleeding and with a negative history of abnormal bleeding 24. Performing serologic testing for Lyme disease in patients with chronic nonspecific symptoms and no clinical evidence of disseminated Lyme disease 26. Performing sinus imaging studies for patients with acute rhinosinusitis in the absence of predisposing factors for atypical microbial causes 27. Performing imaging studies in patients with recurrent, classic migraine headache and normal findings on neurologic examination 28. Routinely performing echocardiography in the evaluation of syncope, unless the history, physical examination, and electrocardiogram do not provide a diagnosis or underlying heart disease is suspected 30.

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Teachers are receiving adequate support in dealing with difficult-to-manage students prostate xray discount proscar 5mg overnight delivery. Motivation mechanisms are in place and effectively working to prostate oncology 77058 proscar 5 mg amex encourage students to prostate cancer 2015 news generic 5 mg proscar with mastercard work hard, perform well, and read outside the school environment. Teachers are communicating situations in which they require assistance or materials. Teacher behavior and actions indicate that they believe changes can result in higher levels of reading achievement. Plan of action for areas in need of follow-up: Adapted from University of Texas Center for Reading and Language Arts. Building a campus of readers: A professional development guide for Texas reading leaders. Are all students in instructional groups attentive and highly engaged, and responding in a manner that indicates that they are actively involved and learning? Is the teacher aware of whether students are learning and scaffolding instruction for those who are having difficulty? Are students who are working independently, in pairs, or in student-directed groups highly engaged? Address the issues of evaluation and confidentiality with teachers directly from the outset. Ensure that the school climate promotes a non-threatening atmosphere for teachers to participate and work with the Reading First coach. Ensure that Reading First coaches are not assigned inappropriate duties that interfere with their ability to coach. Ensure that K-3 schedules set aside time for teachers and Reading First coaches to work together. Schedules include a minimum of 90 minutes of core reading instruction with additional time for intervention. Ensure that Reading First coaches receive the training they need to effectively and confidently provide on-site coaching duties. Develop a management system for organizing the coaching process (including forms, checklists). Review assessment data to identify and group students who need intervention, to inform instruction, and to determine professional development needs. Eugene: University of Oregon, College of Education, Institute for the Development of Educational Achievement. Assessment-driven reading instruction is instruction based on data from reliable and valid assessments that measure the five essential reading components-phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. A reliable assessment consistently results in similar reading scores, even when conditions slightly vary. For example, a reading assessment can be considered reliable if similar scores are obtained even when students are tested by two different people and/or on two close, but different, days. A valid reading assessment is a test that measures the specific reading skills and concepts that it claims to measure. For example, asking students to read lists of words to measure their text comprehension is not a valid or fair way to assess comprehension ability. When instruction is assessment-driven, teachers view assessment as an important step in the instructional cycle. Assessment-driven instruction focuses on high expectations for providing quality reading instruction to every student, regardless of ability level. Assessment-driven instruction also is based on clearly defined state standards and benchmarks that establish high expectations for all students, including English language learners, students who receive Section 504 and special education services, and advanced learners. Reading First schools are required to develop an assessment plan to measure grade-appropriate knowledge and skills in the essential reading components. The four purposes of Reading First assessments are screening, diagnosis, progress monitoring, and outcome. Although there are four types of assessments, one assessment instrument may be used for multiple purposes.

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There are other issues prostate cancer 60 proscar 5mg lowest price, besides collection problems prostate 04 mg safe proscar 5mg, that surround the generation of municipal revenue: inadequacy of the revenue sources assigned to prostate 71 generic 5mg proscar with visa local government; inefficient revenue sources whose yield does not cover collection costs;82 and rigid and administratively demanding revenue sources with design flaws in pricing, collection and the maintenance of records. For instance, loss-making water utilities can be turned around through various forms of privatization. But there are some municipal services that do not readily lend themselves to privatization in the conventional sense, such as solid waste collection in slum areas. In the typical slum, the majority of residents are too poor to afford the prices charged by private service providers, even where competition exists. However, the potential exists to use non-market mechanisms, such as community-based efforts, working with or without municipal support. If municipal governments do not design and manage privatization programmes properly, harmful social consequences could arise. These might include high prices for services, as well as inadequate output by the provider, particularly where competition is limited. Private-sector transactions are rarely monitored or accountable outside of the organization, and pay-offs and semi-legal forms of corruption and crony arrangements are very common. The lack of robust cost data, a classic case of information asymmetry between provider and regulator, also tends to undermine the benefits of privatization, making it difficult to regulate natural monopolies such as water supply. In low-income countries, perhaps the most critical challenge is how best to apply the lessons of micro-finance to housing. Whereas conventional micro-finance lends itself particularly well to trading enterprises, which typically require short-term loans, it is not well suited to housing, which is a long-lived asset with a high value relative to household income. For housing to be affordable, loan finance must be offered for relatively long periods, thus raising lending risks. At the same time, monthly loan payments, a requirement in formal lending, can be quite high relative to the income of the house buyer. For these reasons, it is not easy to directly apply conventional micro-finance practices to house finance, except where small loans are needed for incremental construction, house extensions and house repair. However, in spite of the difficulties listed here, microfinance approaches have been applied successfully in housing, if not always at scale. South Africa has also experimented with non-mortgage loans to establish a secondary market that targets a house cost range not normally addressed by standard mortgages. While this is only possible when incomes have risen substantially, a number of measures can be taken to improve access to housing finance. At the macro level, housing will not Towards inclusive cities: reconsidering development priorities 181 attract adequate savings unless its returns are equivalent to returns in other sectors. Deregulating housing finance integrates it within the rest of the financial sector, enabling housing to attract savings on equal terms with other sectors and preventing the rationing of private finance. In many developing countries, especially in Africa, banking systems are rudimentary and are often confined only to the major urban centres and to formal housing. A large population in the smaller urban centres, and, indeed, in the sprawling slums of the large cities, is therefore poorly served or not served at all by the financial sector. Most of these measures, however, generally do not find favour with the lender, and are only offered under government patronage or guarantee. For these reasons, among others, governments generally have to intervene in the form of creating housing loan bodies, institutions or instruments, or in providing guarantees, not just in the developing world, but practically everywhere. Since it acts as a secure and profitable investment, housing benefits the financial market in other ways. It readily attracts individual savings, especially where a market-driven and properly regulated financial environment exists. Conversely, the prospect of owning a house encourages households to save with financial institutions, thus promoting savings mobilization and investment.