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By: Roohollah R. Sharifi, MD, FACS
- Professor of Urology and Surgery, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine
- Section Chief of Urology, Jesse Brown Veterans Administration Hospital, Chicago, Illinois
Carcinoma types for which grading systems exist and are relevant are incorporated into histologic type prehypertension bp order exforge 80 mg on line. The 3 major categories that are amenable to hypertension warning signs cheap exforge 80 mg fast delivery grading 7 pulse pressure ati cheap 80 mg exforge with amex,8,11 include adenoid cystic carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified. In some carcinomas, histologic grading may be based on growth pattern, such as in adenoid cystic carcinoma, for 11 which a histologic high-grade variant has been recognized based on the percentage of solid growth. Those adenoid cystic carcinomas showing 30% or greater of solid growth pattern are considered to be histologically highgrade carcinomas. The histologic grading of mucoepidermoid carcinoma includes a combination of growth pattern 12characteristics (eg, cystic, solid, neurotropism) and cytomorphologic findings (eg, anaplasia, mitoses, necrosis). Surgical Margins 15,16 the definition of a positive margin is somewhat controversial given the varied results from prior studies. However, overall, several studies support the definition of a positive margin to be invasive carcinoma or carcinoma 17 in situ/high-grade dysplasia present at margins (microscopic cut-through of tumor). Furthermore, reporting of surgical margins should also include information regarding the distance of invasive carcinoma, carcinoma in situ, or high-grade dysplasia (moderate to severe) from the surgical margin. Tumors with "close" margins also carry an 16,17 the definition of a "close" margin is not standardized as the effective cut-off increased risk for local recurrence. Commonly used cut points to define close margins are 5 16 mm in general and 2 mm with respect to glottic larynx. However, values ranging from 3 mm to 7 mm have been 16,18 19 and for glottic tumors as low as 1 mm. Thus, distance of tumor from the nearest margin used with success, should be recorded. Reporting of surgical margins for carcinomas of the minor salivary glands should follow those used for squamous cell carcinoma of larynx. Of the 2 types of dysplasias, the keratinizing dysplasias are significantly more common than the nonkeratinizing dysplasias. High-grade dysplasia at a margin is regarded and reported as a positive margin, while low-grade dysplasia is not. Orientation of Specimen Complex specimens should be examined and oriented with the assistance of the operating surgeon(s). Direct communication between the surgeon and pathologist is a critical component in specimen orientation and proper sectioning. Whenever possible, the tissue examination request form should include a drawing or photograph of the resected specimen showing the extent of the tumor and its relation to the anatomic structures of the region. The lines and extent of the resection can be depicted on preprinted adhesive labels and attached to the surgical pathology request forms. Perineural Invasion Traditionally, the presence of perineural invasion (neurotropism) is an important predictor of poor prognosis in 21 head and neck cancer of virtually all sites. The presence of perineural invasion (neurotropism) in the primary cancer is associated with poor local disease control and regional control, as well as being associated with 21 metastasis to regional lymph nodes. Further, perineural invasion is associated with decrease in disease-specific 21 survival and overall survival. There is conflicting data relative to an association between the presence of perineural invasion and the development of distant metastasis, with some studies showing an increased 21 association with distant metastasis, while other studies showing no correlation with distant metastasis. The 22 relationship between perineural invasion and prognosis is independent of nerve diameter. Additionally, emerging 23 evidence suggests that extratumoral perineural invasion may be more prognostically relevant. Aside from the impact on prognosis, the presence of perineural invasion also guides therapy. Concurrent adjuvant chemoradiation therapy has been shown to improve outcomes in patients with perineural invasion (as well as in 24,25 Given the significance relative to prognosis and patients with extranodal extension and bone invasion). Lymph Nodes Measurement of Tumor Metastasis the cross-sectional diameter of the largest lymph node metastasis (not the lymph node itself) is measured in the gross specimen at the time of macroscopic examination or, if necessary, on the histologic slide at the time of 24,25 microscopic examination. Special Procedures for Lymph Nodes the risk of regional (cervical neck) nodal spread from cancers varies based on anatomic subsite. At the current time, no additional special techniques are required other than routine histology for the assessment of nodal metastases.
This information may indicate the need to 1 5 discount 80 mg exforge visa counsel patients about tobacco and alcohol cessation blood pressure erectile dysfunction order exforge 80 mg online. Finally pulse pressure 45 buy generic exforge 80 mg on-line, screening should be done regularly because oral cancer can occur in patients without any apparent risk factors. World Cancer Research Fund International and American Institute for Cancer Research. In: Food, nutrition, physical activity and the prevention of cancer: a global perspective. Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in nonsmokers: clinical and biologic characteristics and implications for management. Head and Neck Changes · For all sites there are separate classifications for clinical and pathological neck nodes · There is a new classification for p16 positive oropharyngeal cancers. If a vessel wall is identifiable on H&E, elastic or other stains, it should be classified as venous invasion (V1/2) or lymphatic invasion (L1). Similarly, if neural structures are identifiable, the lesion should be classified as perineural invasion (Pn1). Changes in N category for Jejunum and Ileum Minor changes in Stage Perihilar Bile Ducts No Changes Distal Extrahepatic Bile Duct · Changes in definitions of T1,T2,T3 categories and N categories · Changes in Stage Pancreas T1 Tumour 2 cm or less T1a Tumour 0. Recommendations for initial evaluation, staging, and response assessment of Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: the Lugano classification. This decade has seen a perceptible change in the academic lingo with off repeated use of terms "randomized evidence", "metaanalysis and "levels of evidence". Probably it has also induced uniform patterns to care across India reducing unnecessary long distance travel for patients to seek better patient care. Head and neck cancers comprise of 25% of all cancers in India and are one of the common causes for mortality and morbidity in males. In addition due to lack of screening programs many patients present with advanced disease. Fortunately there have been advances in chemotherapy and radiation which have resulted improvements in the overall survival of these patients. Recent developments in the management of head and neck cancer also include use of targeted therapies which have become an important option for a select group of patients. It has updates on areas where there have been changes in management since the last book published in 2005, giving an overview of the disease with options of management of the various subsites in the head and neck region based on current available evidence. This handbook together with the book on algorithms will serve as a useful tool for practicing oncologists in our setup. February 2012 Mumbai R A Badwe Director, Tata Memorial Centre General Principles and Outline of Management 1. All patients with suspected carcinoma of head and neck should be evaluated by a head and neck surgical oncologist and should record the following: A. History Disease related information Detailed history of habits and addictions Medical and Family history, including any prior malignancy Comorbidity B. Treatment decisions for all patients should be made in a multidisciplinary joint clinic with the goal for maximizing survival and preservation of form and function. When different modalities are available, the modality that gives maximum chance of cure should be used. When different modalities have similar results, a modality that gives better quality of life, with organ / function preservation is preferred. Patient refuses surgery High risk of surgery A plan should be developed for a tumour free resection margin and appropriate reconstruction for restoration of form and function No modification of this plan should be done based on response to any prior chemotherapy Modify plan for wider resection, if there is disease progression while waiting. Tumour involvement of the following structures are considered technically unresectable: Erosion of pterygoid plates, sphenoid bone, widening of foramen ovale Extension to superior nasopharynx or deep extension into Eustachian tube or lateral nasopharyngeal wall Encasement of internal carotid artery, defined radiologically as tumor surrounding the carotids > 270 degrees. Involvement of mediastinal structures Involvement of prevertebral fascia or cervical vertebrae Principles of resection 1. Third dimension (the base) should be taken carefully into account before excision Adequate margin: 1. Or o Doses and Volumes in adjuvant setting Primary and involved nodal disease: 56-60 Gy/ 28-30#/6 weeks, using reducing fields. Site of residual disease, positive cut margins: 4-10 Gy Boost Uninvolved nodal stations: 45 -50 Gy Dose of chemotherapy in the adjuvant setting in combination with radiotherapy: 30mg/m2 weekly with hydration and antiemetic prophylaxis 7 Rehabilitation Abstinence from tobacco/alcohol Oral hygiene Shoulder physiotherapy in all cases of neck dissections Bite guide prosthesis following mandibulectomy Jaw stretching exercises to prevent post-operative trismus Swallowing and speech rehabilitation Follow up · Every 2-3 months in first 2 years Six monthly for next 3 years Annually thereafter On every follow up thorough head and neck examination for loco-regional control, second primary tumour and late sequelae of treatment. About 20% of the neoplasms in the head and neck region maybe small and superficial and imaging may not be needed. However in the remaining 80%, the primary role of imaging is to evaluate the deep extent of disease.
Final maxillary prosthesis after 2-3 months Follow up Policy: Regular follow up as usual for all head neck malignancies arterial doppler order 80 mg exforge overnight delivery. Craniofacial resection for malignant paranasal sinus tumors: Report of an International Collaborative Study blood pressure medication for kidney transplant patients cheap exforge 80 mg visa. Malignant tumors of the superior sinonasal vault are rare arrhythmia drugs exforge 80mg low price, and, because of this and the varied histologic findings, most outcomes data reflect the experience of small patient cohorts. Methods: Three hundred thirty-four patients from 17 institutions were analyzed for outcome. Patients with esthesioneuroblastoma were excluded and are being reported separately. The most common histologic findings were adenocarcinoma in 107 (32%) and squamous cell carcinoma in 101 (30. Statistical analyses for outcomes were performed in relation to patient characteristics, tumor characteristics, including histologic findings and extent of disease, surgical resection margins, prior radiation, and prior chemotherapy to determine predictive factors. The status of surgical margins, histologic findings of the primary tumor, and intracranial extent were independent predictors of overall, diseasespecific, and recurrence-free survival on multivariate analysis. The status of surgical margins, histologic findings of the primary tumor, and intracranial extent are independent predictors of outcome. Cancer 2001 Dec 15;92(12):3012-29 Background: the authors reviewed treatment results in patients with nasal and paranasal sinus carcinoma from a large retrospective cohort and conducted a systematic literature review. Methods: Two hundred twenty patients who were treated between 1975 and 1994 with a minimum follow-up of 4 years were reviewed retrospectively. A systematic review of published articles on patients with malignancies of the nasal and paranasal sinuses during the preceding 40 years was performed. Factors that were associated statistically with a worse prognosis, with results expressed as 5-year actuarial specific survival rates, included the following: 1) histology, with rates of 79% for patients with glandular carcinoma, 78% for patients with adenocarcinoma, 60% for patients with squamous cell carcinoma, and 40% for patients with undifferentiated carcinoma; 2) T classification, with rates of 91%, 64%, 72%, 134 and 49% for patients with T1, T2, T3, and T4 tumors, respectively; 3) localization, with rates of 77% for patients with tumors of the nasal cavity, 62% for patients with tumors of the maxillary sinus, and 48% for patients with tumors of the ethmoid sinus; 4) treatment, with rates of 79% for patients who underwent surgery alone, 66% for patients who were treated with a combination of surgery and radiation, and 57% for patients who were treated exclusively with radiotherapy. Local extension factors that were associated with a worse prognosis included extension to the pterygomaxillary fossa, extension to the frontal and sphenoid sinuses, the erosion of the cribriform plate, and invasion of the dura. In the presence of an intraorbital invasion, enucleation was associated with better survival. In multivariate analysis, tumor histology, extension to the pterygomaxillary fossa, and invasion of the dura remained significant. Systematic review data demonstrated a progressive improvement of results for patients with squamous cell and glandular carcinoma, maxillary and ethmoid sinus primary tumors, and most treatment modalities. Conclusions: Progress in outcome for patients with nasal and paranasal carcinoma has been made during the last 40 years. These data may be used to make baseline comparisons for evaluating newer treatment strategies. Endoscopic surgery for malignant tumors of the sinonasal tract and adjacent skull base: A 10-year experience Piero Nicolai, M. Am J Rhinol 22, 308316, 2008 Background: the increasing expertise in the field of transnasal endoscopic surgery recently has expanded its indications to include the management of sinonasal malignancies. We report our experience with the endoscopic management of nasoethmoidal malignancies possibly involving the adjacent skull base. Results: One-hundred eighty-four patients were considered eligible for the present analysis. The most frequent histotypes encountered were adenocarcinoma (37%), squamous cell carcinoma (13. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy for sinonasal tumors: Ghent University Hospital update. The tumor histologic type was adenocarcinoma in 54, squamous cell carcinoma in 17, esthesioneuroblastoma in 9, and adenoid cystic carcinoma in 4. The tumors were located in the ethmoid sinus in 47, maxillary sinus in 19, nasal cavity in 16, and multiple sites in 2. The 5-year local control, overall survival, disease-specific survival, disease-free survival, and freedom from distant metastasis rate was 70.
The indirect costs are loss of productivity and a variety of costs such as transport to blood pressure jumps when standing discount exforge 80 mg without prescription and from the health care provider and support of the patient in his daily activities that can be provided by professionals or by relatives blood pressure medication and gout buy exforge 80 mg without prescription. Several economic studies on the burden of low back pain have been published but the comparison of the results is often difficult given the differences in methodology arteria gastroepiploica dextra discount exforge 80mg amex. A literature review of studies published between 1996 and 2001 learns that the cost of low back pain is high and comparable to other chronic disorders (such as headache, heart disease, depression or diabetes) but the actual cost estimates vary depending on the costing methodology used. A small percentage of the patients suffering chronic low back pain accounts for a large fraction of the costs 320. In Germany the total cost of low back pain was estimated around 17 billion and about 30 % are direct costs for physician visits, diagnostic procedures, hospital treatment, rehabilitation, physical therapy and medication 324. The authors of this study conclude that savings through restrictive prescriptions for medications have no great impact on total costs. Only a more efficient therapy, which reduces sick days, number of recurrences and development of chronic illness as well as a more effective prevention, is able to limit the costs of back pain in the long-run. In the ranking of the economic burden of diseases, low back pain figures among the most expensive pathologies, regardless of the study methodology. Only a part of the costs are linked to the medical care, suggesting that "readiness to work" or "return to work" should be an important evaluation criterion for measuring the efficacy of treatment. In an earlier study, the direct cost of managing low back pain in Belgium was estimated and its magnitude was compared to the estimated cost of care in the Netherlands 325. It was found that the cost pro capita of managing low back pain was in Belgium significantly higher than in the Netherlands. The higher costs were mainly incurred by the higher frequency of surgery and consequently the higher need for treating failed back surgery syndrome. Both surgery and the neuromodulation techniques cost significantly more than the minimal invasive pain management techniques that are more frequently used in the Netherlands. It was hypothesized that this difference could be attributed to the difference in available health care settings. In the Netherlands, there is a longer tradition with multidisciplinary pain centers whereas in Belgium this approach only started recently. The potential sources of information for identifying the cost of care for low back pain were selected if they provided information relative to the medical care and related costs i. The main focus of this study is "chronic" low back pain: the available information does not always allow making the difference. The target population to be studied is ideally described as patients suffering "common" low back pain for more than 3 months that is pain not attributable to specific diseases such as tumor, infection, osteoporosis and vertebral fractures. In Belgium the general practitioner is frequently the first health care provider consulted. When more specialized diagnostic or therapeutic interventions are indicated, care can be given ambulatory, in classic hospitalization or in one-day clinics. It collects information from general practices, via the electronic medical record. These data will be used for analyzing the incidence and management of low back pain in primary care. Two administrative databases were consulted to analyse the procedures performed in hospital, i. The cost of medication used for the management of low back pain could rely on the Farmanet system but the registration only cover the reimbursed medications and it is not pathology specific. However this data source was dismissed given the high price of this source of information coupled with an absence of precise diagnosis. The Socialist Mutuality published in 2006 a study on the cost of medical imaging and subsequent care for low back pain for the year 2004 326. The longitudinally collected data are used to study the frequency of use of the different types of medical imaging, the use of reimbursed prescription drugs and physical therapy and rehabilitation. Another potential source of information about the treatment of chronic low back pain could be the data from the nine new pain reference centers certified in May 2005. These centers are considered as third line referral centers for patients suffering chronic pain refractory to conventional treatment in first and second line care. The multidisciplinary team of pain centers is composed of a pain specialist (mostly anesthesiologist with specialization in chronic pain management), pain nurse, psychologist/psychiatrist, physiotherapist and rehabilitation specialist working together to establish a treatment plan. The coordinators of the 9 centers are working together with the representatives from the health authorities and the health insurers to establish a standardized registration scheme of the patients consulting the centers.
The management structure and staff involved will depend on the nature of the premises prehypertension treatment proven 80mg exforge. Management systems must be in place to arteriovenous malformation discount 80mg exforge with visa ensure that operators have sufficient knowledge arterial insufficiency order exforge 80mg with visa, competence, experience and resources to understand and control the risks of infectious disease, including legionellosis. Inadequate management, poor training and poor communication can all contribute to outbreaks of infectious disease associated with these systems. Because most hot tubs, spas and swimming pools are operated at temperatures conducive to the growth of legionellae, temperature control cannot be relied on as a control measure in the way it can in distribution and other systems. Therefore, the main control measures are cleaning, operational procedures, disinfection, good source water quality, and maintenance of water quality. This section should be read in conjunction with Chapter 4, which describes control measures for such factors as source water quality and temperature. Source water quality - control measures the starting point for control of legionellae and other microorganisms is to ensure that the water used for filling and topping up the pool is of good microbial quality and free from nutrient sources. Ideally, the jet pumps of hot tubs should cut out automatically after 1520 minutes, so that bathers are encouraged to leave the water and the disinfectant levels allowed to recover (see also Disinfection below). Spa pools should have clearly visible information listing the range of pre-existing medical conditions for which bathing in such pools is not recommended. Because of the high bather-to-water ratio in hot tubs, it is important to ensure that the water turnover is adequate. Guideline figures vary from six minutes in the United Kingdom (Health Protection Agency, 2006)8 to one hour in New South Wales, Australia (New South Wales Health, 1996). Ideally, a detectable residual biocide level should be maintained at all times, to prevent colonization of the system by microorganisms living in biofilms. Alternatively, nonoxidizing biocides, such as polyhexamethylene biguanide and copper/silver ionization (usually with an oxidizing biocide) may be used. Particular features of hot tubs (such as elevated temperatures, high turbulence, high organic load, the amount of sunlight present and natural water chemistry) may affect the choice of disinfectant. Halogen-based oxidizing disinfectants, such as chlorine, are most commonly used in pools and hot tubs. They have the advantage of being relatively inexpensive, simple to use, easy to measure on site, and active against most infectious organisms. Sufficient disinfectant should be added so that there is still free, active biocide after combination with bacteria, urine and other organic pollutants. When chlorine is in water it combines with organic materials arising from the bathers, such as urine and perspiration, to form chloramines. These act much more slowly than when chlorine is free or uncombined; they also give rise to odours. Bromamines are formed from bromine-based disinfectants in a similar way to chloramines; however, bromamines are still effective as a biocide and are less susceptible to changes in pH. Ozone is often used in combination with chlorine or bromine; it can be very effective, but it is not suitable for use on its own. Practical aspects Features such as water sprays in pool facilities should be periodically cleaned and flushed with a level of disinfectant high enough to eliminate Legionella species (e. In hot tubs in commercial premises, the introduction of water treatment chemicals should be automatically controlled. Intermittent dosing by hand will not achieve a consistent level of biocide and is not recommended. In unusual situations where there is a maintenance fault, the pH could drop to levels at which oxidizing biocides will be disassociated, leading to increased levels of chlorine or bromine, which can cause eye and skin irritation. Bicarbonates or carbonates may be added to act as a buffer against rapid changes in pH caused by high bather loads, pollutants and chemicals. In some circumstances, such as in natural spring-fed spas, the addition of chemical disinfectants is considered an adulteration and is not usually allowed, because of the reputed therapeutic effects of the natural water (Martinelli et al. Pasteurization is the most common means of control, combined with flushing of outlets for 510 minutes. The interval between flushes must be based on a risk assessment of the particular system. Similarly, if mineral water at a hydrotherapy facility is inhaled for its claimed beneficial or therapeutic effects, disinfection might not be considered acceptable, because it would change the chemistry of the water. Design, operation and maintenance - control measures Systems should be designed, operated and maintained to optimize control strategies.
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