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The majority of the children observed in a longterm study attended special educational needs schools (Steinhausen 1995) hiv infection symptoms duration effective mebendazole 100mg. Additional follow-up studies of 30 children of alcoholics through adulthood have confirmed that permanent mental and psychiatric developmental disorders must be expected oral hiv infection symptoms generic mebendazole 100mg on line. It is likely that more than a few children of alcoholics will be overlooked at birth antiviral ganciclovir buy cheap mebendazole 100 mg on line, and that their development will not be appropriately encouraged, because they are morphologically unremarkable (Spohr 2000, personal communication). The developmentally toxic effect of paternal alcohol exposure observed in some animal experiments and postulated in individual case reports cannot (yet) be proven in humans (Passaro 1998). However, the negative effects on male fertility as a result of alcohol abuse have been proven (see above). It is often difficult to determine the exposure to alcohol in the mother and/or newborn based upon blood alcohol levels, due to the very brief half-life of ethanol. However, recent techniques that measure the ethyl esters of fatty acids in the newborn meconium and hair can provide a history of maternal alcohol exposure (Chan 2003). Primary prevention of developmental and reproductive (fertility) disorders is the main issue. Because alcohol is a proven teratogen, there must be a warning against regular or excessive use. Alcoholism is one of the few situations in which pregnancy interruption may be discussed with the patient. Lying about an alcohol problem during pregnancy has (life-long) consequences for the mother and child. The use of alcohol-containing tonics and medications with an alcohol base cannot be compared with alcohol abuse, but should nevertheless be avoided (see also Chapter 2. This applies to medications with an alcohol base, at least when the concentration exceeds 10%. Caffeine is also an ingredient in many over-thecounter pain and cold medications (see also Chapter 1. These xanthines are well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract; they cross the placenta, and cause increased fetal activity and a significant increase in its heart frequency. In animal studies, extremely high doses of caffeine (200 mg/kg per day) caused minor development anomalies of the phalanges. Unlike the animal studies mentioned, adults usually do not consume more than 36 mg/kg of caffeine daily. Extensive epidemiological studies in several countries gave no indication for any reproductive toxicity or teratogenicity under these conditions (Browne 2006, Castellanos 2002, Christian 2001). The effect on fertility as a result of regular use of larger quantities of caffeine has also been discussed. There is no objection to the consumption of normal amounts of caffeine and theobromine in pregnancy that is, three cups of normal-strength coffee with 50100 mg of caffeine, or the equivalent amounts of other caffeine-containing drinks. If significantly higher amounts have been consumed, this does not require any additional diagnostic procedures. A cigarette weighing 1 g contains about 10 mg of nicotine, of which about 1015% (11. Nicotine is absorbed through the mucosa in the mouth cavity, the respiratory system, and the gastrointestinal tract. Nicotine has a half-life of 2 hours; 90% of the nicotine absorbed is metabolized in the liver to hydroxynicotine and cotinine (which has a half-life of 20 hours). Nicotine crosses the placenta unimpeded, and causes the fetal heart frequency to increase. Potential carcinogens such as benzo pyrene and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanon were detected in the serum of newborns before the first oral feed (Lackmann 2000, 1999). The respective differences in concentrations among children of active and passive smokers, as well as women from non-smoking households, were statistically significant. Smoking is embryo- and fetotoxic, but apparently does not represent a significant risk of birth defects. However, associations between smoking during the first trimester and risks of non-syndromal orofacial clefts (Deacon 2005, Little 2004A, 2004B, Zeiger 2004, Chung 2000) are still under debate. These studies indicate that the risk for genetically predisposed fetuses to develop clefts is increased from 1 in 500 (the general population prevalence) to about 1 in 183. The following effects of smoking during pregnancy have been discussed (see also Werler 1997): Smoking only marginally increases the risk for spontaneous abortion when other risk factors such as alcohol consumption, pregnancy history, social status, and karyotype are considered and decrease uterine receptivity (Soares 2006).
Based on Peirce antiviral for shingles buy generic mebendazole 100mg on line, her analyses of the data suggested that the visitors first perceive the exhibits in terms of similar things seen before (iconic relations) and this initial stage of perception invites further involvement and interpretations antiviral for chickenpox buy cheap mebendazole 100mg online. Then visitors note what is new or different in these particular exhibits latest hiv infection rates mebendazole 100mg for sale, and they go about examining pertinent indexical relations, including how the exhibit qualities link to the world beyond the museum. Umiker-Sebeok concludes from her analysis that museum visitors are active participants in constructing meaning for exhibits according to their own needs and conditions. By implication, this insight likely holds for many other consumer settings as well, including malls, retail shops and Internet sites. Everyday products and ownership In a study focusing on understanding the nature of product ownership, Grayson and Shulman (2000) argued that the Saussurean paradigm is insufficient for explaining meaning and memory related to consumer possessions. To explore this proposition, they focused on special possessions as a case in point. The authors contend that memories are tangibly present in the many things that instigate those recollections, and this tangibility is clearly manifest in possessions that consumers consider irreplaceable. The authors argue that, if possessions had only 42 Handbook of qualitative research methods in marketing arbitrary symbolic meanings (which is the emphasis of the Saussurean paradigm), then any possession lost should be able to be replaced with an identical copy, without any loss of meaning or value. The authors interpreted this finding to mean that irreplaceable possessions are causally linked to given people, places and activities, and thereby these possessions are more than symbolic in meaning. They are also indexical within the Peircean paradigm, insofar as they have a spatialtemporal quality of co-presence (meaning and memory) that cannot be replicated. Discussion As a research tool, semiotics provides means of examining how meanings in the marketplace are constructed at the intersection of marketing strategy and consumer behavior. In the narrow space of our chapter, we have sought to show how two major traditions of semiotics (Saussurian and Peircean) have led to descriptive and explanatory insights on marketplace meaning. Discussion of the European tradition in semiotics, beginning with Saussure, emphasized the formal similarity between the structure of language and the structure of non-linguistic sign systems such as consumer behavior and advertising imagery, and the potential to move beyond the description of meanings to the theoretical implication of the reader/spectator/consumer in the production of meaning. Our discussion of the Peircean tradition and its uses in marketing research revealed how just a few concepts from semiotics, such as index, icon and symbol, can be applied to an array of topics. Product designs and brand logos are replete with meanings from those tri-type semantic relations, triggered by the signs of varied textures, images, colors, lights, shapes, materials and so forth. Advertising can also be decomposed into indexes, icons and symbols, and the subtle manipulation of their characteristics exposes the rhetorical influence that these distinctions carry in the meanings set up and evoked. Attitudes and memories from processing the ads have been shown to be similarly affected. The concepts of index, icon and symbol also help to unpack experiences in consumption environments as a sequence of semantic events and to elucidate the meaningful spirit of product ownership and the valuation of special possessions. If one assumes, as Peirce did, that the universe is profused with signs, then by logical necessity all products, possessions and consumption are inexorably meaningful at their core. Adopting the viewpoint, concepts and analytical tools of semiotics extracts this core and helps to unpeel its layers of qualities and processes. For purposes of marketing research, the semiotics of Saussure and Peirce offer equally valid but distinct tools for examining the structure and interpretation of meaning in the marketplace. However, it should be noted that these two approaches to semiotics stem from two distinct philosophical traditions, i. His Meaning in the marketplace 43 emphasis in semiotics is often related to logic, hence the name of his contribution to semiotics. He sought to classify signs in terms of their distinct formal properties, and to unpack the complex interrelationships among different types of sign in any instance of communication. Saussure, on the other hand, sought to identify a universal structure common to all kinds of signs. In line with a phenomenological interpretation of reality, the Saussurian sign consists of a dialectical relationship between a material signifier, such as a series of sounds, and a signified, an abstract concept in the mind of the speaker. In Saussure, signs do not operate in isolation, but create meanings in context with other signs in a semiotic system or discourse. It is only at the level of discourse that signs contribute to the formation of rhetorical figures or icons, indexes and symbols. Inasmuch as discourse is constructed by a conscious act, the Saussurian tradition is grounded in the phenomenological assumption of the origin and condition of possibility of meaning in the conscious Self. Thus the Saussurian tradition invited theoretical developments in European semiotics in the twentieth century that focused on the implication of self, society and culture in sign production or semiosis. The goal of this chapter was to discuss the importance of meanings in marketing research and how semiotics can be used to understand consumers, advertising, possessions and brands. Furthermore, managing brand equity is tantamount to managing brand semiotics, since the semiotic dimension of brands is instrumental in building awareness, positive associations and long-term customer loyalty (Aaker, 1991).
It was especially German romanticism in the late 18th and early 19th centuries that linked language with identity and nation hiv infection rate in new york generic 100 mg mebendazole mastercard. Hence hiv infection rates by gender cheap mebendazole 100mg visa, the link between a language and a culture may not be as close as it seems antivirus windows xp order 100mg mebendazole mastercard, even if language and culture as such are always inseparable. Altogether, the relationship between language and culture is a complex one, and no simple answers should be taken as satisfactory. Cultural Change Linguistic Change the relationship between cultural change and linguistic change is a challenging topic as well, and one which should be discussed before further investigating the links between cultural and onomastic change. It has been noted that even if scholars have been interested in contact issues for long, there has not been much coordination between the studies of language contact and culture contact and their methods (Weinreich 1968, p. Just as was the case with all cultural change, linguistic change has been explained by both internal and external factors (Wardhaugh 1992, p. Most commonly borrowed 27 Personal Names and Cultural Change are elements attached to cultural items, whereas the fundamental vocabulary of the language. The method of this school was comparative: regularities in language change were discovered by isolating linguistic elements and analysing them diachronically. In doing so, historical linguists treated languages as autonomous systems, independent of their contexts and users. They also saw linguistic changes as self-motivating, that is, motivated by phonetic and other linguistic rules. The sociolinguists also emphasise that language is fundamentally social behaviour. Hence, they investigate linguistic elements in relation to their social importance, an aspect that was neglected by earlier linguists. This approach has also led to the interest in the links between cultural change and linguistic change: Essentially any radical social change, especially where contact between different cultures is involved, brings about a restructuring of the communication system(s), thereby producing language change (Blount & Sanches 1977a, p. As this quotation also shows, the general idea of the relationship between language change and cultural change has been that it is the changes in culture that cause linguistic changes, not vice versa. However, some linguists hold that changes in language may also have significant influence on cultural change. For example, changes in the semantic structure of the language may cause changes in the cognitive orientation of the person, which may then affect other cultural aspects (Brandt 1972, p. As was noted earlier, the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis also claims that linguistic structures may affect human perception and thought. It is clear that culture contact does not necessarily result in language contact: elements of another culture may be adopted without any influence on the language(s) in question. To sum up, one may claim that 28 Personal Names and Cultural Change there are four main sources for linguistic change, and in many cases, these factors seem to work together: 1. Personal Names and Culture Personal names are often said to be cultural universals, by which it is meant that in all human societies, people are given names and the bestowal of names follows conventionalised rules (Alford 1988, p. In all cultures, the basic purpose of personal naming is "to provide a symbolic system of individual identification" (Akinnaso 1980, p. Just as the act of naming is universal, names are also universally classified as nouns in different languages (Van Langendonck 1997, p. The concept of name has puzzled linguists and philosophers for centuries or for millennia. A large number of definitions have been presented by various scholars, and usually they have been met with more or less severe criticism. On the orthographic level, there are capitalised words and uncapitalised ones; on the morphosyntactic level, there are proper nouns and common nouns; on the referential level, singular terms and general terms, and on the semantic level, proper names (names) and common names (appellatives). Eventually, he concludes that what names are depends on which level of language one deals with, and whether one is concerned with the universals of naming or naming within a specific language. A number of scholars have also come to the conclusion that there is, after all, no essential difference between proper names and appellatives, or that the difference is only gradual (Van Langendonck 1997, p. Despite the numerous approaches to this question, it is generally agreed that proper names40, contrary to common names, function to denote particulars, such as individuals, entities and members of classes (Bean 1980, p. Traditionally, 29 Personal Names and Cultural Change proper names are understood to be monoreferential: their function is to individualise their objects (Ainiala 1997, p. In addition, they are considered to refer to individuals without having to specify their characteristics. The idea that proper names simply stand for their bearers and do not indicate their attributes is especially attributed to J.
A primary goal for Glaser and Strauss was to hiv infection dose purchase mebendazole 100 mg with mastercard challenge the superior status then invariably accorded quantitative research and the assumption that qualitative research could 19 20 Handbook of qualitative research methods in marketing produce only description and not theory hiv infection statistics order mebendazole 100mg free shipping. However countries with high hiv infection rates purchase mebendazole 100 mg overnight delivery, Glaser and Strauss did not seek to challenge the basic ontological or epistemological assumptions that were shared by many self-professed social scientists of the time. While the authors were sensitized to the social constructionist view of reality (Locke, 2001), their approach treated social construction, in pragmatic fashion, as a provisional reality about which positive types of theories could be developed. Thus something of a realist ontology and a positivist epistemology undergird the original articulation of grounded theory methods (Charmaz, 2000). Although its original proponents parted company and advanced differing views on how to develop grounded theory (see, for example, Glaser, 1978, 1992; Strauss and Corbin, 1990, 1998), they remained largely faithful to their original philosophical assumptions and goals. Both proponents were largely unmoved by the philosophical challenges to positivism or the postmodern critiques of social research that gained ascendancy soon after their original book was published (Charmaz, 2000). As a result, a neopositivist ethos pervades much of the contemporary work that draws explicitly on the grounded theory approach (along with the closely allied tradition of case-based qualitative research; see Eisenhardt, 1989; Yin, 2002). Responses to the positivist heritage of grounded theory One response to the fact that the grounded theory approach was conceived in modernism, and remains considerably rooted in its objectivist origins, is to treat grounded theory as though it were historically interesting but of limited contemporary relevance. A second response to the association of grounded theory with modernism, advocated in particular by Charmaz. Charmaz argues that the techniques of coding and categorizing that are central to grounded theory methodology can be adapted so as to produce theory sensitive to the fact that researchers are part of, rather than separate from, what is researched. Our response differs from both of these summarized above in that it recognizes that the grounded theory approach, as it has evolved, provides contemporary qualitative researchers with a pragmatic means of building theories that import constructs and logics from existing work developed in quantitative traditions, and that are readily exportable for use by those who wish to build quantitatively on qualitative insights. Indeed, marketing and consumer behavior have many such scholars whose works are sometimes subsumed within the constructivist, critical or postmodernist traditions, but who in fact seek to develop constructs and hypotheses that are more closely linked to work in quantitative traditions. Breaking new ground 21 We believe that qualitative researchers (neophyte and experienced) face no greater challenge than that of developing theory (ask anyone who has ever submitted qualitative work to a major journal, and received the nearly universal request to make the work more theoretical). We believe that scholars who want to develop work that builds upon that of their quantitative peers need guidance that acknowledges the possibility of pragmatic theory building based on qualitative data. Thus our response to the heritage of grounded theory is to highlight the benefits of this approach as it has evolved in contemporary usage. We enact this perspective by first distinguishing the kinds of questions suited to a grounded theory approach. The questions grounded theory answers In their original articulation of the grounded theory approach, Glaser and Strauss (1967) imply that researchers will find, not only their answers, but also their questions, in the research contexts they choose to investigate. They recommend that researchers immerse themselves in the setting of interest to them, essentially ignoring prior research that might impede the development of an understanding of that particular setting. This is intended to ensure that an appropriately grounded theory of the setting might arise, or that, at a minimum, healthy skepticism is maintained toward pre-existing theories that on their face might seem salient to a particular research context. For those who seek to publish research today, adhering strictly to this approach is simply impracticable: prior research cannot be ignored. It must shape research questions, though its influence on the research questions asked is likely to unfold over the course of an investigation. The contemporary practice of posing research questions that link to a wider literature is consistent with more recent articulations of grounded theory methodology. In what sense, then, are the questions addressed by those who used this approach grounded? We believe contemporary marketing and consumer behavior research offers four distinct answers to this query. First, a study may be grounded in that its investigation of a specific context gives rise to questions about the nature of a new construct. Consider the question posed in a recent paper by Flint, Woodruff and Gardial (2002). They state, `Our guiding research question was, "What does desired value change mean to customers? This context thus grounds the study in a meaningful way because customer-desired value change may not have garnered attention in early studies, in part because this construct is not salient to all customers in all industries. Thus the question asked and answered in their study enables the authors to make contributions at the level of substantive theory, which explicates relationships between 22 Handbook of qualitative research methods in marketing constructs within a particular context where such constructs and relationships are particularly salient (Strauss and Corbin, 1994).
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