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Because feminist philosophy of science has played a key role in articulating the most fundamental critiques of authoritative knowledge in feminist studies treatment pneumonia order 200mg copegus overnight delivery, it has been a flashpoint for controversies over academic feminism medicine emoji purchase 200 mg copegus with amex. Because it engages with the very epistemological questions at the heart of debates over legitimate scholarly methodology symptoms 1dpo buy generic copegus 200 mg on line, feminist philosophy of science has occupied a unique position among other feminist studies fields-as well as other science studies fields-in grounding the new models of knowledge upon which academic feminism proceeded. As we will see in the discussion that follows, feminist science scholarship is supremely interdisciplinary. As much as its interdisciplinary location and marginalization has been a challenge for feminist science scholarship, including feminist philosophy of science, it has also been a strength. One must include the work of scientists and other non-philosophers in order to properly describe the field of feminist philosophy of science and its contributions. With toeholds in multiple disciplines and professions, feminist scholars of science have been able to produce creative and penetrating critiques of science and to forge novel approaches within their home disciplines. Feminist philosophy of science, primarily through the use of case studies, has advanced research in classic areas of philosophy of science and opened up philosophy of science to new and fruitful investigations. The author presents a methodological critique of gender bias in a particular scientific research program, theory, or explanatory framework. He or she shows how gendered practices or assumptions in a scientific field prevented researchers from accurately interpreting data, caused inferential leaps, blocked the consideration of alternative hypotheses, overdetermined theory choice, or biased descriptive language. Feminist investigations of gender bias in biology are a good example of this case study methodology in practice. Feminist scientists, philosophers, historians, and science studies scholars began examining biological theories of sex and gender in the 1970s, and there is a now substantial and well-regarded case study literature on gender bias in particular areas of the sciences. Similar case studies have been documented in many areas of the sciences, including medicine, archaeology, engineering, physics, and the social sciences. Her hard-hitting critique targets core assumptions of classical evolutionary models of human female sexuality, which typically conceive of female sexual behavior only in terms of its role in reproduction. Provoking extensive debate among human evolutionary biologists, her analysis has led to new developments in this field, including empirical studies to test her alternative model of the evolution of the human female orgasm (Wallen and Lloyd 2008a,b). Roughgarden shows how central supporting assumptions of sexual selection are invisible to its proponents and often undefended. Extracting these central premises, making them explicit, and examining the evidence, Roughgarden finds that many of them are not only empirically undersupported, but rife with ideological assumptions. The alternative offered by Roughgarden, social selection, repositions animal mating behavior as reproductive social behavior that serves many functions beyond mating, including social bonding and the raising of offspring. This alternative model presents empirically testable hypotheses and is now inspiring robust debates in the field and new theoretical research in evolutionary ecology (Roughgarden et al. Case study analyses of gender bias in science have been highly influential within both philosophy and the sciences. By underscoring how science can come to reflect the ideology of its practitioners in ways that are not apparent to them, work on gender bias in scientific knowledge has also supported efforts to bring about diversity and inclusion in the science professions (see Fehr 2010). Finally, detailed case study work on gender bias in science has formed the bedrock material and motivation for reconstructive projects in feminist epistemology and philosophy of science over the past decade. Currently, there is a mismatch between the significance of case study analysis of science for the development of the philosophy and practice of science on the one hand, and the prestige that the discipline of philosophy awards such work on the other. Journal referees, funding sources, graduate training, and tenure demands often brand case study work, dismissively, as "applied" philosophy of science, and yet it represents some of the most socially relevant work in philosophy of science. As a scholarly community, philosophers of science must strive to make case study work on the social and political dimensions of scientific knowledge more mainstream, rewarded, and prestigious. As Keller (1992) argues, reflection on gender and science presents kinds of questions that may be used as tools for probing historical, philosophical, and social dimensions of science. Studies of gender in scientific knowledge raise original, integrative, and challenging questions about science, questions that are not applicable simply to gender, but prove useful for analyzing science in general. Feminist scholarship has demonstrated that sex and gender constitute primary categories in human social life and that gender attributions are deeply embedded in human knowledge, language, and symbolic culture. Gender norms are, as Keller writes, "silent organizers of the mental and discursive maps of the social and natural worlds we simultaneously inhabit and construct" (1992, p. In this way, feminist approaches to science, Keller continues, "expose to radical critique a worldview that deploys categories of gender to rend the fabric of human life and thought along a multiplicity of mutually sanctioning, mutually supportive, and mutually defining binary oppositions" (p. This has consequences for the organization and valuation of forms of human knowledge, the perceived authority of differently embodied knowers, the practice of science, and the structure of scientific explanations of nature (see Traweek 1988; Daston 1991; Lloyd 1993; Schiebinger 1993). Science has helped to construct and enforce dominant human conceptions of sex differences and gender norms.

It does suggest treatment lyme disease purchase 200mg copegus mastercard, however medicine prescription generic copegus 200 mg without a prescription, that an exclusive focus on individual personality will not support full understanding of the context of deviance medications elderly should not take order copegus 200 mg without prescription, its process and history. Like some biological factors, personality factors may cause some risk of deviance, but they seldom add predictive value outside the larger social context of deviance. Psychologists widely believe that differences in personality traits or attempts to escape explain addiction to opiates. They can cite no evidence of anything approaching an "addict personality," however, or any cluster of personality traits that are consistently associated with addiction. In this view, early childhood experiences produce feelings of insecurity; together with difficulties in adult interpersonal relations, these feelings produce tensions and anxieties. Moreover, supporters of this position offer no reason to believe that people with one type of personality are more likely to become alcoholics than people with another type. Efforts to identify the personality traits that would distinguish homosexuals from heterosexuals have also ended without success. The psychological literature devoted to many types of deviant behavior refers to a deviant personality type as a criminal psychopath or a psychopathic personality. The more modern term for this kind of offender attributes an antisocial personality disorder to him or her. Journal accounts often describe this habitual criminal as without guilt or remorse for offending behavior. Despite considerable dispute over the meaning of the term psychopath, some of the characteristics of this person include the demonstration of poor judgment and inability to learn from experience, shown by pathological lying, repeated crime, delinquencies, and other antisocial acts. Descriptions of psychopathic traits often lack precision, however, as demonstrated by wide differences in diagnoses of psychopathic criminals in various institutions and by research on the associated personality traits. Furthermore, some psychologists identify subjects as psychopaths merely because they have repeated or persisted in offending behavior, committing the same error of circular reasoning described for psychoanalysts. Writing on the characteristic of persistent antisocial behavior as a criterion for designation as a sexual psychopath, Sutherland stated: "This identification of a habitual sexual offender as a sexual psychopath has no more justification than the identification of any other habitual offender as a psychopath, such as one who repeatedly steals, violates the antitrust law, or lies about his golf scores" (1950: 549). Evaluation of the Psychological Explanation Sociologists often criticize the psychological explanation of deviant behavior on the following grounds: 1. Human behavior results primarily from variable, socially determined roles rather than static conditions like so-called personality traits. Psychological theory also fails to explain how deviants acquire specific behavior, such as techniques of stealing. Psychology gives almost no tools for isolating the effects of societal reactions on the behavior of deviants. A psychologist can never say for sure whether given personality traits manifested themselves before development of the deviant behavior or whether experiences encountered as a result of the deviation produced the traits. An alcoholic or a drug addict may develop certain personality traits as a result of a long period of alcoholism or drug addiction, in reaction to consequent rejection and stigma, rather than the trait preceding and perhaps causing the deviance. An accurate scenario might portray interactions of psychological and social factors over time resulting in behavior. Finally, psychology has produced no evidence of associations between so-called personality traits and deviations from disapproved norms. The studies do not show particular traits that all deviants share and that do not occur among nondeviants. Some deviants, for example, display emotional insecurity, but so do some nondeviants. Psychology has difficulty interpreting such mixed results and accounting for the presence, though in varying proportions, of the same characteristics in both deviant and nondeviant groups. For example, an analysis of aggression has pointed out, "Aggressive deviant acts share so much in common with nonaggressive deviant acts that individuals prone to commit aggressive criminal acts are prone to commit nonaggressive criminal acts as well. Thus, no individual-level trait of aggression is consistent with the results of behavioral research" (Gottfredson and Hirschi, 1993: 65). Rational Choice Theories Many people explain a great deal of deviance simply as purposeful behavior; such an action represents a choice made by the actor to behave in a certain way, to think in a certain way, or to live a certain kind of lifestyle. In this view, analysis requires little attention to ideas such as self-concept, socialization, role, status, or identity, except of course as they influence individual decision making. Rather, one can evaluate deviance simply by understanding that criminals choose to commit crimes, alcoholics choose to drink as much as they do, and cocaine users choose to consume their drug. The deviant might decide over a long period of time or at the moment to engage in a particular activity, depending on the circumstances.

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Results: Comparison of gene expression profiles from control samples against all autistic samples reveals a set of genes for which gene expression level is associated with phenotypic severity medicine woman cast purchase 200 mg copegus fast delivery. A 4-class analysis further reveals genes that separate the 3 phenotypes from each other as well as from controls medications jamaica copegus 200mg with mastercard. Bioinformatics analyses of the microarray data for each phenotypic subgroup similarly identify unique and common pathways and functions that are "enriched" in the respective gene datasets symptoms 11 dpo cheap copegus 200 mg visa. These distinguishing genes can potentially be used to develop a diagnostic gene panel that can be used to screen for autism as well as reveal the variant of autism that is present. A five point Likert scale was used to measure energy/activity level and food intake. As expected, more girls and boys who were overweight had medical problems or were taking medications that are known to affect weight and/or height (p<0. In contrast, a stable, more normal energy/activity level and amount of food consumed were reported for unaffected siblings. Institute for Medical Research, (5)University of Western Australia Background: Autism is a complex neurobehavioural disorder often occurring with a variety of physical and behavioural abnormalities. This has lead to a variety of mixed and complex phenotypes which has often confounded previous genetic research. Objectives: this research aimed to harness this behavioural, biological and genetic heterogeneity as a method of creating a more powerful study, using latent class analysis to investigate the subtypes of autism. Methods: Information was collected on a cohort of 92 Autistic children (ages 4-18yrs) regarding their family histories and development using a parental report questionnaire covering pregnancy, birth, early physical and behavioural development and abnormalities, other medical conditions, diagnosis, sibling and family conditions. Current behaviour and functioning were assessed using the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales, Social Responsiveness Scales, Developmental Behaviour Checklist, Childhood Communication Checklist-2. Information pertaining to their early development was collected from postnatal and early childhood records. All children were karyotyped and urine amino acid analysis used to screen for a variety of genetic disorders. Wray2, (1)Curtin University of Technology, (2)State Child Development Centre, (3)Princess Margaret Hospital, (4)Western Australian Conclusions: Focusing on conditions comorbid with autism as a clue to distinct latent classes may lead to sub-classifications of autism and thus more powerful phenotypic and genotype studies in the future. These findings were not correlated with any of the psychometric or other biological markers measured. Wray1, (1)Princess Margaret Hospital for Children, (2)Royal Darwin Hospital Background: Various biological observations in children with autism have been reported, but there is limited longitudinal data on the specificity, stability and relationship of the abnormalities with communication and social development. Objectives: To examine the stability over time and the clinical significance of certain biological markers in children with autism. On the communication subscale score, the fathers showed significantly higher scores than the control males, but the mothers did not show a significant group difference. Other subscales were not significantly different between the parents and the controls. Prior to referral major depressive disorder and obsessivecompulsive disorders were the most common psychiatric diagnoses. It has been shown to be valid, reliable, and highly sensitive and highly specific in a limited number of subjects. Two recent peer reviewed publications present the rational, a detailed description, and a clinical research application of the scale. It is now being standardized on a larger number of subjects in an international multi center study. Objectives:,To present the initial findings of the international multi center standardization study. Methods: Clinical data and scale scores are being obtained on the following types of subjects: A. Subjects with an autism spectrum disorder, 1) those diagnosed by research criteria, 2) those with a prior diagnosis by clinician of various professional disciplines, B. To date over 100 autistic spectrum and 300 non-autistic spectrum subjects have been assessed, and more will be added by the time of the presentation. Results: to be determined Conclusions: these will be based on the results of the data available for analyses on May 1, 2008, and presented at the conference. Different neurocognitive and neurobiological mechanisms may be associated with different modes of (complex) inheritance. Wu2, (1)Chiayi Christian Hospital, (2)National Chung Cheng University Background: Early diagnosis of autism in toddlers now is possible after recently vigorous investigation.

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However symptoms 16 weeks pregnant copegus 200mg without a prescription, these medications are expensive and only available as injectables or implants medicine used during the civil war copegus 200 mg with amex. These medications have beneficial effects on scalp hair loss treatment hemorrhoids proven copegus 200 mg, body hair growth, sebaceous glands, and skin consistency. Progestins With the exception of cyproterone, the inclusion of progestins in feminizing hormone therapy is controversial (Oriel, 2000). Because progestins play a role in mammary development on a cellular level, some clinicians believe that these agents are necessary for full breast development (Basson & Prior, 1998; Oriel, 2000). Progestins (especially medroxyprogesterone) are also suspected to increase breast cancer risk and cardiovascular risk in women (Rossouw et al. Oral testosterone undecenoate, available outside the United States, results in lower serum testosterone levels than non-oral preparations and has limited efficacy in suppressing menses (Feldman, 2005, April; Moore et al. Because intramuscular testosterone cypionate or enanthate are often administered every 2-4 weeks, some patients may notice cyclic variation in effects. This may be mitigated by using a lower but more frequent dosage schedule or by using a daily transdermal preparation (Dobs et al. Intramuscular testosterone undecenoate (not currently available in the United States) maintains stable, physiologic testosterone levels over approximately 12 weeks and has been effective in both the setting of hypogonadism and in FtM individuals (Mueller, Kiesewetter, Binder, Beckmann, & Dittrich, 2007; Zitzmann, Saad, & Nieschlag, 2006). There is evidence that transdermal and intramuscular testosterone achieve similar masculinizing results, although the timeframe may be somewhat slower with transdermal preparations (Feldman, 2005, April). Especially as patients age, the goal is to use the lowest dose needed to maintain the desired clinical result, with appropriate precautions being made to maintain bone density. World Professional Association for Transgender Health 49 the Standards of Care 7th Version Other agents Progestins, most commonly medroxyprogesterone, can be used for a short period of time to assist with menstrual cessation early in hormone therapy. Bioidentical and compounded hormones As discussion surrounding the use of bioidentical hormones in postmenopausal hormone replacement has heightened, interest has also increased in the use of similar compounds in feminizing/masculinizing hormone therapy. There is no evidence that custom compounded bioidentical hormones are safer or more effective than government agency-approved bioidentical hormones (Sood, Shuster, Smith, Vincent, & Jatoi, 2011). Therefore, it has been advised by the North American Menopause Society (2010) and others to assume that, whether the hormone is from a compounding pharmacy or not, if the active ingredients are similar, it should have a similar side-effect profile. Because feminizing/masculinizing hormone therapy limits fertility (Darney, 2008; Zhang, Gu, Wang, Cui, & Bremner, 1999), it is desirable for patients to make decisions concerning fertility before starting hormone therapy or undergoing surgery to remove/alter their reproductive organs. Cases are known of people who received hormone therapy and genital surgery and later regretted their inability to parent genetically related children (De Sutter, Kira, Verschoor, & Hotimsky, 2002). These discussions should occur even if patients are not interested in these issues at the time of treatment, which may be more common for younger patients (De Sutter, 2009). Besides debate and opinion papers, very few research papers have been published on the reproductive health issues of individuals receiving different medical treatments for gender dysphoria. Another group who faces the need to preserve reproductive function in light of loss or damage to their gonads are people with malignances that require removal of reproductive organs or use of damaging radiation or chemotherapy. Lessons learned from that group can be applied to people treated for gender dysphoria. MtF patients, especially those who have not already reproduced, should be informed about sperm preservation options and encouraged to consider banking their sperm prior to hormone therapy. In an article reporting on the opinions of MtF individuals towards sperm freezing (De Sutter et al. Sperm should be collected before hormone therapy or after stopping the therapy until the sperm count rises again. In adults with azoospermia, a testicular biopsy with subsequent cryopreservation of biopsied material for sperm is possible, but may not be successful. Reproductive options for FtM patients might include oocyte (egg) or embryo freezing. The frozen gametes and embryo could later be used with a surrogate woman to carry to pregnancy. Studies of women with polycystic ovarian disease suggest that the ovary can recover in part from the effects of high testosterone levels (Hunter & Sterrett, 2000).

Objectives: the objective is to symptoms of hiv discount copegus 200mg mastercard describe influences of early signs of autism on social development and to symptoms ketoacidosis buy 200mg copegus free shipping figure-out specific features of interactions in the first 18 months of life medicine zetia purchase copegus 200 mg with amex. Infants with autism display increasing difficulties in "Maintainingsocial-engagement" and "Syntonic-responses" and lower frequencies of "Pointing", "Accepting-invitation" and "Responding-toname". Moreover A receive less solicitations than others to "Regulate-down" their behavior. Conclusions: In t1 A do not display specific impairments in basic behaviors (look, orient-himself and smile). Intersubjective impairments become evident later, when they seem not able to organize abilities to be socially engaged for enough time. To "Maintain-social-engagement" and to "Accept-invitation", children need to attune responses to solicitation, showing attention and interest into intention. This behavioral categories may represent empirical markers of typical development. To compare the usefulness of different screening items odds ratios per item were calculated. However, each instrument demonstrates specific strengths and many single items on joint attention and language and communication show high odds ratios. Conclusions: Pros and cons of instruments will be discussed and directions for future research proposed. However, little research has been completed on comparing the properties of different screening instruments at an early age in one and the same sample. Objectives: To compare the properties of several screens and the value of their individual items in two age groups of high-risk 11 123. Recent studies describe a third pattern of onset in which the children demonstrate mild delays during the first year of life followed by later regression. Objectives: To describe early development, clinical characteristics of regression and later severity of autistic symptoms in children with different type of onset. Early development in children with definite regression results more typical in comparison with the other two groups, with significant differences in many social and communicative skills. Neverthless, 90,9 % of children with certain regression fail in showing two or more expected communicative or social behaviours. No significant differences in the severity of autistic symptoms were found among the three groups. As an alternative, standardized home video diaries may allow for dense data collection during critical early stages of development when symptoms emerge or developmental trajectories change significantly, as in regression. Parents (currently n=30) also completed web-based weekly diaries and brought their infant to the laboratory for standardized assessments at 6, 9, 12 and 18 months. Ongoing work will focus on the predictive diagnostic value of video diaries and the relation between behaviors in the diaries and in laboratorybased assessments. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that families are capable of completing one semistructured video per month. Thus, video diaries provide a realizable, cost-effective method of collecting data more frequently than lab-based testing. Golding, University of Bristol Background: There is evidence that a number of children with autism have chronic bowel disorders. Data were also available for bowel symptoms of colitis (diarrhoea, blood in stools and stomach pain). Since then, a large amount of studies have associated the length of the index finger relative to the length of the ring finger, the 2D:4D ratio, with a variety of variables. Finger length is determined by hormonal influences (testosterone) in the first 3 months of pregnancy and remains stable over life. Objectives: the aim of this study was to compare finger length in boys with different psychiatric disorders. Only boys were included to rule out the effect of male-female differences in finger length, and the effect of a difference male-female prevalence for the disorders.

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