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The new press law also includes several defamation-related offenses blood pressure wrist monitor ramipril 2.5 mg, punishable by fines hypertension zebrafish 2.5mg ramipril with mastercard, including the crime of "offending the President heart attack feat thea austin order 5 mg ramipril otc. The latter was sentenced to six months imprisonment for alleging in the interview that the government had unjustly detained, mistreated, and even disappeared pro-Gbagbo supporters, although the sentence against him had not been enforced at time of writing. The government on several occasions prohibited opposition rallies and used tear gas and other non-lethal force to disperse largely peaceful demonstrators. Security Force Abuses and Security Sector Reform Members of the security forces continued to engage in racketeering and extortion, particularly at checkpoints on secondary roads. Senior army commanders also continued to be implicated in the illicit exploitation of natural resources. A rural land agency, created in 2016 but only operational in 2018, began to accelerate efforts to facilitate land registration and demarcate village boundaries. In Abidjan, local government officials in July forcibly evicted thousands of people from the Port Bouлt neighborhood without adequate prior notice. Ivorian forestry officials also in some areas continued to forcibly evict farmers from protected forests and national parks. Past government-led forestry reclamation efforts, such as the 2016 eviction of farmers from Mont Pйko national park, left thousands of evicted families without access to adequate food, water, or shelter. The criminal justice system still faces longstanding and fundamental challenges, however, including a lack of judicial independence, excessive use of pretrial detention, and prison overcrowding. As of July, some 16,000 people were detained within a prison system designed for less than 9,000. Detainees lack adequate access to medical care and suffer extortion by prison guards and fellow inmates. Partly to help ease prison overcrowding, President Ouattara pardoned more than 4,000 prisoners accused of non-political crimes in January 2018, another 4,000 in September. Gender-Based Violence Sexual and gender-based violence remain frequent, with social stigma and widespread impunity preventing many victims from reporting abuses and obtaining medical care or counseling. Although female genital mutilation has been criminalized since 1998, it is still practiced widely, affecting more than a third of women aged between 15 and 49. Child marriage is also still common, with more than a quarter of women now aged 20 to 24 having been married by age 18. The number of short-term arbitrary arrests of human rights defenders, independent journalists, and others was significantly less in 2018 than in 2017, but still remained high, with more than 2,000 reports of arbitrary detentions between January and August. The government continues to use other repressive tactics, including beatings, public shaming, travel restrictions, and termination of employment against critics. On April 19, Cuba inaugurated a new president, Miguel Dнaz-Canel, who took over from Raъl Castro. Castro remained as the leader of the Communist Party and retained his seat in the National Assembly. On July 22, the National Assembly unanimously approved a proposal for a new constitution, to be voted on in a national referendum on February 24, 2019. The new constitution, which would replace one adopted in 1976, would eliminate the objective of "achieving a Communist society" but retain the assertion that the Communist Party is the "superior leading force of society and the State. Police or state security agents routinely harass, rough up, and detain members of the Ladies in White (Damas de Blanco)-a group founded by the wives, mothers, and daughters of political prisoners-before or after they attend Sunday mass. In March, a former political prisoner, Ivan Hernбndez Carrillo, reported having been violently beaten and detained when he intervened to stop the arrest of his mother, Asunciуn Carrillo, a Ladies in White member, who was leaving her home to attend mass. Activists have said the charges are a farce and witnesses allege that the official threw himself in front of the car intentionally, only to get up and ride off on his motorcycle. Upon his release 12 days later, Hidalgo reported having been psychologically tortured and held in harsh conditions in a dark, dirty cell. In September, dissident Arianna Lуpez Roque was briefly detained after burning a copy of the proposal for new constitution. According to Lopez, she was charged with public disorder, disobedience, resistance, and contempt and an official threatened with retaliating against her husband, who is currently imprisoned. Arbitrary Detention and Short-Term Imprisonment the Cuban government continues to employ arbitrary detention to harass and intimidate critics, independent activists, political opponents, and others. The number of arbitrary short-term detentions, which increased dramatically between 2010 and 2016-from a monthly average of 172 incidents to 827-started to drop in 2017, according to the Cuban Commission for Human Rights and National Reconciliation, an independent human rights group that the government considers illegal.

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In children arrhythmia or anxiety cheap ramipril 10 mg fast delivery, it is more frequently bilateral and of a viral or post-viral etiology hypertension genetics buy ramipril 10mg without a prescription. Most common cause of painless monocular blindness in patients older than 50 years blood pressure chart when pregnancy cheap ramipril 5mg otc. Produces an altitudinal field deficit, flame hemorrhage, and edema with disc atrophy. One third of cases are bilateral, and are usually associated with diabetes or hypertension. Cause bilateral, symmetric central or centrocecal scotomas (unlike demyelinating disease) with normal peripheral fields. Can occur at any point from posterior globe to optic chiasm, but usually occurs at the level of the optic canal. Central scotoma involves a fixation point and cecocentral is a fixation point connected to the blind spot. Caused by a lesion at the optic nerve/chiasm border, resulting in ipsilateral central scotoma and a contralateral superior temporal quandrantanopsia ("pie in the sky"). Due to sellar and suprasellar masses, sarcoidosis, aneurysms, and Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Temporal lobe lesion involving fibers from the superior field causes a pie in the sky deficit (contralateral superior quadrantanopsia). Note the smaller retinal-based mass (arrow) within the right globe near the macula in this patient with bilateral retinoblastoma. Genetic predisposition due to loss of the Rb tumor suppressor gene (chromosome 13q), then a spontaneous mutation of Rb on the other (normal) chromosome ("two-hit" hypothesis). Leukocoria (white pupil), squint (strabismus), red/painful eye, secondary glaucoma. Small round cells with Homer-Wright rosettes and Flexner-Wintersteiner rosettes (sheets of cells forming rosettes around an empty lumen). Monophasic demyelination that typically occurs after a viral illness or vaccination (smallpox, rabies, varicella, rubella). Orbital imaging may demonstrate edema and/ or enhancement of the optic nerve(s) or chiasm. Abnormal brain/spinal cord findings include multifocal areas of T2 hyperintensity in the white matter, with variable enhancement. It may be difficult to distinguish the optic nerve and sheath on noncontrast images in the setting of pathologic involvement. The normal optic nerve and surrounding high signal of the sheath are clearly visible on the left. The patient then developed significant loss of visual acuity over a 24hour period, which prompted emergent biopsy. Diagnosis Unilateral (left) optic nerve sheath meningioma Meningioma internal carotid circulation, especially around the skull base. Several different pathologic types (three basic types: meningothelial, fibroblastic, and transitional) have been described. Fifteen percent of primary intracranial tumors; peak at age 40 to 60 years, and females are more commonly affected. The Jackson Laboratory Handbook on Genetically Standardized Mice the Jackson Laboratory Handbook on Genetically Standardized Mice A note to our readers from the editors. For optimal viewing of page layout in Adobe Acrobat, we recommend the following: Under the View menu, Page Display, select Two-Up and Show Cover Page During Two-Up. Because we want this Handbook to be as accurate as possible, we would greatly appreciate it if you would email kevin. Our mission: We discover precise genomic solutions for disease and empower the global biomedical community in our shared quest to improve human health. The Jackson Laboratory Handbook on Genetically Standardized Mice Sixth Edition Scientific Editor Kevin Flurkey Editor Joanne M. We would like to thank the handbook steering committee, whose membership has included Susie Airhart, Carol Bult, Greg Cox, Muriel Davisson, Edward Leiter, Cathy Lutz, John Macauley, Janice Pendola, Brian Soper, Marge Strobel, Laura Trepanier, and Barbara Witham. We also would like to acknowledge the assistance we received from the Technical Information Services staff throughout the duration of this project: Karen Fancher, David Higgins, Peter Kelmenson, Pat North-Hughes, Jennifer Merriam, Jay Palmer, Janice Pendola, James Yeadon, Tanya Lansley, and Yan Yang. We especially want to thank Greg Cox, for his extra time and invaluable assistance. And, we want to acknowledge the contribution of Karen Davis, in Multimedia Services, and Michael Greene, in Marketing.

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Before the election pulse pressure wave qrs complex order ramipril 10 mg on-line, the Election Commission made multiple changes regulating voter registration pulse pressure and shock generic ramipril 2.5 mg mastercard, including limiting the number of ballot boxes for local workers at tourism resorts blood pressure chart over 60 purchase ramipril 5 mg without prescription, the biggest source of employment in the Maldives, and requiring that civil servants re-register at their workplace. Civil society groups reported that ruling party officials submitted re-registration forms only from their supporters. Police also repeatedly closed opposition party offices, detained their supporters, and seized opposition flags and banners. Human rights groups documented efforts by ruling party officials to manipulate voter registration lists in their favor. State of Emergency On February 1, 2018, the Supreme Court overturned the convictions of nine members of the opposition, including former President Mohamed Nasheed, who had been sentenced to 13 years in prison on terrorism charges in a 2015 trial widely condemned as unfair. Then-President Yameen denounced the ruling as "illegal," and on February 5 declared a 15-day state of emergency that was later extended until March 22. The decree suspended constitutional protections, banned public assemblies, and granted security forces sweeping powers to arrest and detain. The remaining three Supreme Court Freedom of Expression Using the 2016 Anti-Defamation and Freedom of Expression Act, the government in 2018 imposed heavy fines on media that published content critical of the president. Extremists that endorse an Islamist ideology, including some gangs linked to prominent politicians, harassed and attacked media and civil society groups. The Yameen government had made no progress in investigating the abduction of journalist Ahmed Rilwan, who was last seen in August 2014, or the murder of Yameen Rasheed, a blogger and activist who was stabbed to death in April 2017. At a campaign rally on August 7, 2018, Yameen declared that Rilwan was dead-a claim he later retracted. On November 18, President Solih established a commission to investigate both cases, chaired by a former attorney general, Husnu Al Suood. Maldivian law bans sexual harassment in the workplace, but the law is seldom enforced. Trafficking of Women and Children the Maldives is both a destination and a source country for women and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking. Children are trafficked from outlying islands to the capital, Malй, some of whom are reportedly subjected to sexual abuse and forced labor. Ties with India deteriorated after New Delhi criticized the government crackdown on the opposition and the declaration of a state of emergency. After the election, President-elect Solih vowed to restore good relations with India. Following the election, China called for "continuity and stability" in its relations with the Maldives. During the campaign, Solih had vowed to review all Chinese projects in the Maldives. Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity the Maldivian penal code criminalizes adult, consensual same-sex sexual conduct; the punishment can include imprisonment of up to eight years and 100 lashes. Human Rights Defenders Social media trolls and thugs, some with links to the ruling party, have threatened human rights defenders because of their work. In January 2018, Shahindha Ismail, the executive director of the Maldivian Democracy Network, received threats on social media after an online news site branded her an apostate for a statement promoting religious freedom. Key International Actors the February 2018 declaration of a state of emergency was widely condemned internationally. The United Nations high commissioner for human rights, among the first to speak out, described the crackdown as "an all-out assault on democracy. The peace process envisioned to end the 2012-2013 political-military crisis in the north made scant progress, including on disarmament and the restoration of state authority. In central Mali, Islamist group attacks, including with explosive devices on roadways, increased from 2017, killing many villagers. State counterterrorism operations resulted in dozens of summary executions and ill-treatment. During 2018, at least 300 civilians were killed in over 100 incidents of communal violence in central and northern Mali. The violence pitted ethnically aligned selfdefense groups against communities accused of supporting Islamist armed groups, resulting in the pillage and destruction of dozens of villages and displacement of tens of thousands. In September, President Ibrahim Boubacar Keita was sworn in for a second term after winning elections marred by insecurity, allegations of irregularities, and some rights violations, including banned demonstrations and the closure of a local radio station. Little effort was made toward providing justice for victims of abuses, and rule of law institutions remained weak.

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Cuvette: Cell made of optically transparent material that contains solutions for analysis by optical methods Electromagnetic Spectrum arteria femoral cheap ramipril 2.5 mg with visa. Absorbtion Photometry of certain wavelengths of light from the spectrum of white light gives the solution its color prehypertension definition generic 2.5 mg ramipril with mastercard. Absorbtion Photometry solution containing hemoglobin appears red because light in the green range of the spectrum (wavelengths of 500-600 nm) is selectively absorbed (removed from the white spectrum) blood pressure chart age nhs discount ramipril 5mg overnight delivery. Measuring the decrease in green light that occurs upon passing through the solution, gives an indication of the amount of hemoglobin present. Figure 2-2 shows the configuration used to measure light absorbed ­ the difference between the emitted light from the source (lo) and the light that reaches the photodetector (ls). The specific wavelength of light chosen is based on the absorption properties of the compound being measured. As the amount of a substance in solution increases, the relative amount of light that passes through solution and reaches the detector decreases. For a given method, A = elc where e is the extinction coefficient, l is the length of cuvette and c is concentration. The analyte reacts with an added reagent to produce insoluble particles that remain suspended in the solution. A higher concentration of analyte presents a greater number of particles that will inhibit light passing through the solution and increase the amount of light reflected. It is possible to measure the loss of light passing straight through the solution (called turbidimetry) or the increase of light reflected in a different direction (called nephelometry). In turbidimetry, the detector is placed in a direct line with the incident light and the light sensed by the detector decreases as the number of analyte particles increases. In nephelometry, the detector is placed at an angle to the light path to avoid detection of light passing through the sample. The nephelometric detector senses light scattered by the particles; the amount of light reaching the detector increases as the number of analyte particles increases. Often, antibodies are used with these methods and represent a type of immunometric assay, specifically, immunoturbidimetry and immunonephelometry. The antibodies in the reagents will cause analyte molecules to form complexes or lattices and these large particle aggregates enhance the reflection of light, increasing the analytical signal that is measured. Turbidimetric and nephelometric methods are often chosen to measure proteins such as transferrin or Figure 2-3. In each case the incident light is of shorter wavelength and higher energy than the emitted light. So a substance that absorbs blue light (wavelength 400) may emit lower energy green light (wavelength 500). The detector is placed at a 90° angle from the incident light so that it detects only emitted light and Figure passes directly through the sample, or reflected light bounded back not residual incident light that2-4. The more light emitted by the sample the greater the concentration of the fluorescent compound. Fluorescent Photometry High Energy Short Wavelength Low Energy Long Wavelength Light Source Cuvette Containing a Fluorophore Photodetector Figure 2-5: Fluorescent photometry. Instead, fluorescent molecules are incorporated as reagents to help detect analytes. Excess (unbound) antibodies are washed away and the amount of fluorescent light generated is in direct proportion to the amount of tumor marker in the sample. Similar to fluorescence, there are some molecules that, due to their structure, can produce light rather than heat when they react with other molecules. Some immunological methods for measuring hormones and tumor markers utilize a chemiluminescent molecule. Once bound to the first antibody bound complex, a chemical is added to the mixture to generate a chemiluminescent signal that is proportional to the amount of analyte in the sample. In a variation of this technique, the chemiluminescent signal is generated by pulsing the mixture with an electrical current rather than through a chemical reaction. One of the electrodes (the measuring or sensing electrode) is affected by contact with ions in solution. The potential between the measuring electrode and a stable reference electrode is altered as the concentration of ions changes. Potentiometric methods are best suited for measurement of ions (electrolytes) such as sodium, Figure 2-6.

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Upon your request heart attack demi lovato mp3 generic 10mg ramipril, either shipment of frozen material or recovery of the frozen material and shipment of liveborn mice heart attack while running 10mg ramipril with amex. This service is ideally suited for institutions or investigators with large rederivation projects or substantial backlogs of strains that must be cryopreserved blood pressure 12080 discount 10 mg ramipril with visa. Use of sperm from two male donors for in vitro fertilization of ova from superovulated donor females; cryopreservation of embryos and rapid recovery upon request. Custom (homozygous embryo) cryopreservation service Cryopreservation of inbred, mutant, and genetically modified lines of mice that cannot be cryopreserved under the conditions of our standard cryopreservation services. Sperm cryopreservation & recovery service Cryopreservation of sperm from two male mice from your colony. This advancement enhances the application of sperm cryopreservation as a colony management tool. Phenotyping and efficacy testing In Vivo services Implementation of treatment studies using mice housed and treated at the Jackson Laboratory. Areas of research include obesity and type 2 diabetes, type 1 diabetes, inflammation and autoimmunity, neurodegenerative and neuromuscular disorders, and xenografts. Phenotyping services Model characterization, drug target validation, and efficacy testing in mouse models of disease; based on a broad selection of noninvasive physiological tests. This service is especially useful when creating speed congenics, confirming strain identity, monitoring genetic purity. Speed congenic development service Creation of a congenic strain of mice using genotyping, reducing development time from 2. Study-ready induced models Aging service Breeding and housing mice until they reach an age when they are useful as models of late onset disease or normal aging. Alopecia areata surgical model Development of mice surgically induced to develop alopecia areata. Options include our shipping pre-treated mice to you or performing further procedures in our facilities. Surgical and histological services Histology service Tissue collection, tissue fixation, embedding, sectioning, straining; shipment of blocks and/or slides. Surgical and tissue collection services A wide variety of standard surgical procedures and bio-specimen, organ and tissue collection, with the option of custom surgery. Conserving, distributing and managing genetically modified mouse lines by sperm cryopreservation. The Jackson Laboratory Handbook on Genetically Standardized Mice 283 Chapter 19: the Jackson Laboratory-West In 1999 the Jackson Laboratory opened a facility in West Sacramento, California. Our objective was to provide a source for mice and related services in demand by academic, nonprofit, pharmaceutical and biotechnology researchers in California and western North America. Since then, our staff and offerings have expanded as customer needs have warranted. Overview of the Jackson Laboratory-West facilities We view the Jackson Laboratory-West as an extension of our Bar Harbor facilities. We adhere to the same exacting standards for research, genetic and health monitoring, animal husbandry, and customer service in California as we do in Maine. Mouse rooms Mouse rooms in Sacramento are maintained in a manner consistent with rooms of our highest health status in Bar Harbor. For a list of strains currently being bred and shipped from the Jackson Laboratory-West, visit Our ongoing goal is to provide the exact, customized services that best meet the needs of the research programs of our customers on the West Coast. We also offer breeding services based in "high health status" barrier rooms or flexible film isolators. The Jackson Laboratory Handbook on Genetically Standardized Mice 285 Appendix A: Strain Nomenclature Quick Reference this appendix includes three tables related to nomenclature: · Table A. For more information about mouse nomenclature, including full guidelines set by the International Committee on Standardized Genetic Nomenclature for Mice, visit the Mouse Nomenclature Home page at Uppercase alphabetic and alphanumeric characters, starting with an alphabetic character.


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